The third of four books published by faculty over the last year: Andrew Gardner, Associate Professor of Anthropology, published his new book, City of Strangers: Gulf Migration and the Indian Community in Bahrain with Cornell University Press. The book explores the experiences of transnational Indian migrants in the wealthy Arabian Gulf States. The book is broadly concerned with the kafala (or sponsorship system) that governs migrants in the region, with the strategies by which Indian foreigners navigate the constraints of that governance, and with the impact of such a large foreign presence on the Bahraini state and society. His research received attention in the New York Times, the Gulf Times, and more).
Here’s a synopsis of the book from Cornell University Press:
In City of Strangers, Andrew M. Gardner explores the everyday experiences of workers from India who have migrated to the Kingdom of Bahrain. Like all the petroleum-rich states of the Persian Gulf, Bahrain hosts an extraordinarily large population of transmigrant laborers. Guest workers, who make up nearly half of the country’s population, have long labored under a sponsorship system, the kafala, that organizes the flow of migrants from South Asia to the Gulf states and contractually links each laborer to a specific citizen or institution.
In order to remain in Bahrain, the worker is almost entirely dependent on his sponsor’s goodwill. The nature of this relationship, Gardner contends, often leads to exploitation and sometimes violence. Through extensive observation and interviews Gardner focuses on three groups in Bahrain: the unskilled Indian laborers who make up the most substantial portion of the foreign workforce on the island; the country’s entrepreneurial and professional Indian middle class; and Bahraini state and citizenry. He contends that the social segregation and structural violence produced by Bahrain’s kafala system result from a strategic arrangement by which the state insulates citizens from the global and neoliberal flows that, paradoxically, are central to the nation’s intended path to the future.
City of Strangers contributes significantly to our understanding of politics and society among the states of the Arabian Peninsula and of the migrant labor phenomenon that is an increasingly important aspect of globalization.