Prof. Utrata at ASA in Philadelphia and at UW’s CSDE in 2018-2019

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The number of historic landmarks and structures in Philadelphia is impressive. Elfreth’s Alley is the nation’s oldest continuously occupied residential street, with structures dating back between 1720 and 1830

Thousands of sociologists gathered in Philadelphia last week during the four-day American Sociological Association Annual Meeting. While the conference draws over 5,000 attendees at a couple of hotels and can be overwhelming, I nonetheless enjoy reuniting with colleagues across the country and making new connections. Other excitement included getting caught unprepared when a flash flood hit while I was walking to my panel over lunch (though my belief in the kindness of most strangers was reaffirmed when a local resident went out of his way to share his umbrella).

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Enjoying Friday night’s welcome reception with fellow sociologist of gender Prof. Louise Roth (University of Arizona)

On the first day of the conference I was fortunate to learn from a panel of groundbreaking scholars offering analysis and feedback on my 2015 book, Women without Men: Single Mothers and Family Change in the New Russia.

Aside from connecting with fellow researchers, conferences are mostly useful for getting feedback on work in progress; I also presented some newer research on what I’m provisionally calling the “third shift” of carework performed by grandparents – regularly but often informally – on behalf of their adult children and grandchildren. The audience asked me questions that helped to push my thinking forward about who does what in caring for young children given our ongoing childcare crisis, where working parents are typically in a crunch and grandparents are living longer but face a range of options for how to best

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Frances Benson, Editorial Director of Cornell’s ILR Press, showed her support for my research by stopping by the AMC session.

spend their time. While waiting to board my flight home I was able to recruit two new grandmothers as interview subjects as they discussed the importance of grandmothers setting boundaries on how much care they provide. They explained how complicated it is trying to maintain a relationship with one’s grandchildren while also trying to have a life beyond childcare.

During this next academic year, while on leave from Puget Sound, I will be building on this research as an American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) fellow at the University of Washington’s Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, which has a research focus on the well-being of families and households. The research fellowship, named after Frederick Burkhardt, supports ambitious, long-term projects by recently tenured scholars in the humanities and related social sciences. I argue that demographic and cultural trends surrounding longevity, paid work after

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Panelists before the Author Meets Critics session on Women without Men. Pictured with (left to right): Profs. Jennifer Randles (Fresno State), Sarah Damaske (Penn State), Eileen Otis (University of Oregon) and Allison Pugh (University of Virginia)

retirement, exorbitant childcare costs, and increasing levels of insecurity in family life have led to an underexplored reliance on grandparents, especially for childcare but including related forms of support, with differing effects by race and class. Using interviews with intergenerational dyads (grandparents providing childcare and adult children relying upon this grandparental assistance regularly), I will explore cultural meanings of this grandparental support across households. I am especially interested in theorizing age relations as a facet of these complex intergenerational power dynamics. In the coming months I will be focused primarily on conducting and analyzing interviews, with conversations helping to hone my analyses along the way. I look forward to further discussions with colleagues and students at Puget Sound when I return next year.

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Travelling foodies unite around the Reading Terminal Market, one of the oldest indoor markets (since 1893!) in the United States.

 

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Update on Sam Lilly’s AHSS Summer Research Project

Hello again,

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An ad-hoc installation of sorts on the estate of one of Sam’s interviewees …

I sincerely hope that your summer has been as beautiful and as insightful as mine. To help jog your memory, this summer I have been using the ethnographic toolkit to help me grasp social attitudes and opinions of suicidality — in hopes of being better able to answer my variation of what Camus coins to be the fundamental question of philosophy:

“Is suicide wrong? If so, how do we know?”

The varying accounts of life, death, and meaning have been afforded to me through support groups created for parents and spouses who are currently grieving the death of their children and partners, as well as different individuals whom I know from my personal life that has lost anyone from mothers to brothers, and best friends.

Their narratives and stories are unsurprisingly full of both heartache and hope. They elucidate one ultimate truth beyond any other – the attitudes and opinions toward mental health, illness, and suicide are tremendously diverse, and anyone account for the grieving process and the loss that a suicide leaves in its wake are just not sufficient to accurately encompass the wide-ranging emotional spectrum created by losing a loved one by suicide.

What this provisional understanding tells me is that the current and expected reactions to suicide portrayed by the media seem to miss the mark on how we as human beings understand suicidality and approach comprehending suicide as a social fact of life and living.

Although a lot of my work is completed, the finish line is still far. I have two more bereavement meetings to attend and four more folks to interview.

I am humbled by and grateful for all of the vulnerability and insight everyone has given to me thus far.

Cheers!

Sam

Update on Ana Siegel’s AHSS Summer Research Project

Ana in Road Canyon

Ana in the Bears Ears area

My summer research proposal was originally aimed at exploring the ways in which shifting status of Bears Ears has affected the relationship—the sense of place—that connects pro-conservation stakeholders to this landmark of the Four Corners region. I intended to work alongside those pro-conservation stakeholders to conduct semi-structured interviews and transect walks, to explore the ways in which these relationships to the land are shifting. Upon entering the field, I quickly realized that this issue is far larger and more complex than I had initially imagined; my interviews led to tangential discussions of Mormonism, Nuclear Era uranium mining, the history of public lands management in the American west, the region’s numerous indigenous Native American tribes and traditions, archaeological excavations … the list goes on. Because of this broadening of my attention—and while my methodological approach has remained largely the same, leaning greatly on semi-structured ethnographic interviews—my research aim has also been broadened: now, I am curious to how sense of place (of all stakeholders, not just pro-conservation or pro-national monument) is affected by environmental decision-making—whether that be on a local or federal level—while looking at the Bears Ears issue as a case study.

Since entering the field, I have been spending my days conducting interviews, transcribing and analyzing those interviews, spending time outside (mostly in the mornings and evenings, as Utah would reach upwards of one hundred degrees during the day), as well as maintaining an extensive annotated bibliography that outlines all of this ethnographic work. I have also made the time to sit down and read literature that has already been written on these topics of research; Wallace Stegner’s The American West as a Living Space, Terry Tempest Williams Open Space of Democracy, and Robin Wall Kimmerer’s Braiding Sweetgrass have been driving forces in my research, all three of which have challenged and shaped the way I perceive the overlap between humans and the natural world. The literature that can be applied to this topic seems to be endless; I am excited to read more.

Pottery Shards on Cedar Mesa

Pottery Shards on Cedar Mesa

I have interviewed fifteen different stakeholders, all contributing vital perspectives and data to this research. But getting in contact—and scheduling interviews—with those stakeholders, though, has been one of the most difficult processes of my research experience. After weeks of unreturned emails and phone calls, it was brought to my attention that—because there are a number of lawsuits, currently in litigation against President Trump, in response to his reduction of Bears Ears National Monument—many stakeholders were legally unable to speak with me, which significantly limited my subject pool. I had to get creative; as I could not get in contact with anyone from the InterTribal Coalition—as they are one of the main groups in litigation—I was able to speak with a woman who had previously served on the Coalition’s board, thus, could be interviewed. On top of this—as I was warned by one stakeholder—many anti-monument stakeholders have been wary to speak with me, as they have received negative media attention, as of late. As a result, I have only spoken to one self-identifying anti-monument stakeholder, though I am still working on getting in contact with more.

Cliff Dwellings in Road Canyon

Cliff Dwellings in Road Canyon

Another difficulty I have come across—of which was somewhat unexpected—was on the more personal side of this research: I had no idea how trying, and at times, incredibly lonely, fieldwork could be. This experience has been a lesson in traveling on my own for the first time; it has instilled in me a great appreciation for coffeeshop WIFI access and for the kindness and generosity of those who have welcomed me into their homes, fed me, and let me use their showers as I have driven back and forth across the state, more times than I would like to admit. I have a newfound and great respect for ethnographers who spend months—and even years—in the field.

Regardless of these obstacles, it is so exciting to begin to reflect on the insight that these stakeholders have shared with me. Though there are so many ideas and narratives that are not included in this brief update, here is a look into some of the trends I am noticing:

  • Sense of place has varied meaning to different stakeholders. 

One concept that has been at the forefront of my attention, throughout this research process, is that sense of place varies greatly from stakeholder to stakeholder; what connects someone to a place—what someone values about a place—is wholly dependent upon their multi-faceted historical and current relationship to the land. One woman I interviewed, who is a former Ute Mountain Ute Councilwoman, explained this concept well: she told me, “I think the value of the land is great, it’s just who you ask and what position they may hold to the land.” This idea of varying perceptions of value seems to be central to my research: Bears Ears is not only a place of immense sacred value, but also has value in its natural resource deposits, in its recreation potential, and countless other attributes; it just depends upon who you are asking…and I can guarantee that you are going to get a vastly different answer, whether you are speaking to someone from a conservation group, a Tribal member, a mountain biker, an extractive industry

Vaughn Hadenfeldt and Petroglyphs

Caught Hadenfeldt and Petroglyphs

executive, a rancher, or any other variety of Bears Ears stakeholder.

  • Public land management needs to be a more actively democratic process. 

At the beginning of the summer—as I noted previously—I read Terry Tempest Williams’ work The Open Space of Democracy. Throughout this text, Williams explores the intersection of spirituality, social change, and politics in democracy. She notes that democracy can only evolve from an abstract idea to an effective governing system, when citizens become active participants, and those in positions of power—within that governing body—are listening to and considering each of those participants’ voices equally. Williams’ cry for active participation from all citizens mirrors the unanimous desires of all of the stakeholders, that I have spoken with, thus far. Many of the Tribal members I have interviewed have expressed a desire for Native voices to have a louder and more weighted voice in the discussion of public land management: for sovereign government to be given equal voice to that of the United States federal government. Many conservation groups seem to back this idea; there is a movement among conservationists to work alongside and for Tribal groups, functioning as an extension of those Tribal voices, working to make sure that those historically-silenced voices are being given a say in the democratic process.

On the anti-monument side, there seems to be a desire for stronger representation, too. A representative from a Salt Lake City localist, freedom-oriented nonprofit expressed that local voices are lacking representation in the federal government; he advocated that while Trump’s reduction of the National Monument was an act of service to the majority of San Juan County’s residents, Obama’s original designation of Bears Ears National Monument vastly disregarded most local voices, following suit of most federally-made decisions.

Thus, while the opinions of what should be done in public land management don’t necessarily line up across stakeholder communities, the notion that the federal government is lacking in their active democratic process seems universal. The idea that public lands are every American’s land seems to be broadly held; so why aren’t these public lands managed as such? Why aren’t the public’s voices being taken into account in this supposed democratic process?

  • Spirituality and personal relationships do not immediately shift nor disappear, as a result of shifts in environmental policy.

One of the themes I have found myself most drawn to, in this research, is the exploration of how sense of place is affected by shifting environmental policy, whether that be different levels of protection over the land or varying amounts of federal/local government intervention on a stakeholder’s interaction with the land. What I am starting to recognize is that sense of place is deep-reaching—as I mention previously, it is the productof a multi-faceted historical and current relationship to the land—and is not quickly created nor destroyed. While many stakeholders have expressed to me a feeling of threat towards their sense of place, anticipating the destruction of sacred archaeological sites, the dismantling of landscapes as a result of mining and drilling for natural resources, limitations in land use and access, or even increased government presence, there seems to be a general consensus that while spirituality and personal relationship can be affected by these factors, it does not mean that sense of place will shift in an instance. A rancher—who has been grazing her herds on and around Bears Ears for over fifty years—told me that Trump’s reduction of Bears Ears National Monument “doesn’t affect my spiritual connection with the land. It belongs to me there, whether you call it a National Park, BLM, or Forest Service; that connection and that spirit will always be with me.”

Castle Valley Sleeping Spot

Sleeping Spot in Castle Valley

This rancher’s statement brings to mind another concept that Terry Tempest Williams writes in The Open Space of Democracy. In her discussion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, she comments that there is a sense of “wholeness” in wilderness; she quotes her travel companion, Carol: “If we choose to continue to only focus on particular areas, then this whole region becomes part of an intellectual and political project of fragmentation. Do we have to keep cutting it up into smaller and smaller bits and pieces until we finally call it a compromise? This notion of wholeness seems to hold true, regarding Bears Ears. Regardless of the boundaries—whether they are those initially proposed by the InterTribal Coalition, those designated by President Obama in 2016, or those currently in place since President Trump’s reduction in 2017, the sense of place that countless stakeholders hold to this land—what deems worthy of protection—is far more expansive than a line on a map.

With these preliminary insights in mind, I will move forwards into the last month of my summer research. I am intending to shift my attention to the analysis and synthesis of the already-conducted interviews. While I would not be opposed to conducting more, if the opportunity arose, I am really looking forward to focusing my energy on first, transcribing the fifteen interviews that I have already conducted, and then moving onto an in-depth folkloric analysis of those transcriptions. I got this idea from my Community Methods for Environmental Research course, taught by Professor Sarah Fox; essentially, I will be going through each of the transcriptions, highlighting reoccurring themes and particularly important passages. After having these themes and central concepts identified, I will then be able to write a research paper that successfully outlines the most important insights from this research, in an accessible manner. While I feel as though this fieldwork will never feel fully complete, I am relieved in knowing that I will continue on with this research for my thesis class, this coming year. I am excited to further develop this project over the next two semesters, and to see how the research questions evolves, as well as to draw some further, and more developed conclusions!

Thanks so much for the update, Ana. Good luck wrapping up your project, and we’ll see you back on campus in a few weeks.

Andrew

 

Update on Tessa Samuels’ AHSS Summer Research Project

Hi all,

As we reach the midpoint of our summer break, I’ve asked each of our AHSS summer research award winners to talk about their research projects, what they’re seeing, and what sorts of provisional conclusions or vista points they’ve found. Here’s what Tessa Samuels had to say about her fascinating and timely project: 

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Tessa Samuels about to conduct another interview for her summer research project.

My research seeks to determine what public schools, day-camps, and childcare facilities can do to help newly-arrived refugee families in the socialization process. With my AHSS summer research project, I hoped to bridge the communication gap between school/childcare systems and refugee families. This project was to mainly be executed through the use of semi-structured interviews and participant observation.

What I have quickly come to understand is that the families are not so concerned with the on-goings in classrooms or childcare facilities (with only one exception to date) — they face greater challenges with transportation, with understanding various rules and regulations, and with getting longer hours so as to have a little time to themselves.

All childcare workers and teachers I’ve encountered have been enthusiastically willing to accommodate cultural preferences or teachings — such as making special accommodations on Ramadan, or not serving pork to families. However, some childcare workers and teachers have faced behavioral and safety issues that they are unsure about — should they combat these behaviors? And how should they communicate with parents about these behaviors?

Moreover, many of these refugee households are headed by single mothers. Because many of these households’ challenges concern transportation and hours, there is little that the teachers and childcare facilities can do to address them. As a result, my project has shifted slightly — I’m now looking at what ways these needs can be better met, what ways childcare facilities can aid in these solutions, and how they might communicate and help with the behavioral and safety issues the encounter at these childcare facilities.

My understanding of these issues has grown tremendously. Many of the refugee families have accepted me in as almost family. I have been spending 20 – 30 hours a week in participant observation with seven different families. I’ve grown to know the troubles they face in their daily routines, the long hours they work, and their heavy reliance on public transportation to pick up their children and then get home — sometimes even after dark. I have conducted twelve ethnographic interviews and have recently begun

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Public transportation is an integral feature of refugees’ quotidian existence in America

transcribing them.

And I’ve grown to realize that I’veacquired more insightful information from participant observation with the families than from these interviews! I’ve spent the majority of my time doing participant observation with these families, while I’ve conducted more formal interviews with childcare facilities and IRC workers to better understand these institutions and the refugee clientele they serve. I went into this project with the idea that this was fascinating work and something of tangible value for multiple communities, but this research has enveloped my life. I’ve developed life-changing relationships, I’ve been invited to family meals, I’ve had deep heart-to-heart conversations about the struggles of childcare in the United States, and I’ve fielded urgent late-night calls from these families.

UnknownI spend a couple hours each night writing up field notes, processing my day, and analyzing the interactions, conversations, and interviews. I’ve come to realize the deep complexity of the issue through the interviews and field notes. One major issue regards best beginnings scholarships — a state scholarship for childcare from lower income families. The complexity with best beginning scholarships is that in order to qualify for this one must be working, but to be able to work one must have childcare – so the timing and coordination between families, child care resources, and childcares has to be perfect which is challenging. Another provisional finding that has appeared in the interviews and field notes is that all families I have spoken to are so confused on why people have to pay for childcare at all in the United States. On the side of childcare facilities a common pattern in interviews is that many childcare facilitators are concerned at how desperate for help families are and that they are too trusting on handing over their children when people offer to watch them.

Two of the biggest challenges I’ve faced concern coordinating schedules with the families, and attempting to understand and translate everything I hear in interviews. Many of these refugee families speak Swahili or Tigrinya, and I need a translator to help conduct the interviews and to coordinate much of my fieldwork. This coordination has been very challenging. It’s been easier to tag along on errands and bus trainings with the translators and families, and interview them en route, although I have occasionally sat down with families for a focused interviews. Being invited into their home and having them talk freely has been an easier way to obtain genuine information and thoughts. During more formal interviews, many families are often very polite, but in participant observation and less formal settings I’m privy to the complaints and hardships these families face. Additionally, the translators I use are refugees themselves, and oftentimes

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Some refugees in the region come from the DRC, transposed on a map of America to gauge its size

it’s difficult to understand everyone on my interview recordings.

I have eight more days left in the field for this project. During that time I intend tocontinue partaking in participant observation. I hope to conduct two more interviews with refugee families, and I’ve planned three more interviews with day camp staff personnel. I will continue to write field notes and analyze data in the evenings. When my fieldwork ends, I plan to compile all these data and begin to analyze those data. In that analysis, I hope to discern patterns in the conversations, complaints, and hardships these families have described to me. I hope to mark some of the best practices of the institutions involved, to point to areas of improvement, and suggest areas where better communication might be helpful, and areas where more services would be of great assistance. All of that will allow me to begin writing an ethnographic assessment of these refugees’ experiences here.

Thanks so much for the update, Tessa, and good look carrying your project to the finish line. We’ll look forward to hearing more from you as the Fall semester approaches.

Andrew

Migrants and the Globalising City: Professor Gardner at an international conference in Paris

Hi all,

 

Early this spring I received an invitation to participate in a small international conference at INALCO — the Institut National des Langues et Civilizations Orientales in

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INALCO, Paris

Paris, France. The small conference, entitled Migrants in the Globalising City: Spaces, Places and Mobilities in Asia, Europe and the Middle East, was organized by a group of scholars working with CERMOM in Paris and the  Asia Research Institute at the National University of Singapore — scholars including Delphine Pagès-El Karoui (INALCO), Brenda Yeoh (NUS), and Michiel Baas (NUS). The result was a fascinating set of papers that explored migrants’ experiences in the landscape of diverse global cities.

Thomas Maloutas and Stavros Spyrellis described the Athens Social Atlas, and then focused more precisely on how the influx of migrants and newcomers into urban Athens resulted in a vertical segregation, whereby the upper floors of buildings were held and maintained by established Greek citizens, while the lower floors were occupied by new arrivals and more itinerant and marginalized migrant populations. Yasser Elsheshtawy (who visited Puget Sound last semester) and Delphine Pagès-El Karoui revealed their efforts to provide us with the first map of segregation in the sprawling urban landscape of Dubai. Laavanya Kathiravelu (Nanyang Technological University) compared the integration of migrants in Singapore and Dubai, revealing the varying conceptualizations of ethnicity woven into the way citizenship is constructed in each of these global cities. Numerous other papers were equally fascinating. 

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Interstitial space in the suburban landscape of Doha, Qatar

In my own paper, I sought to articulate the concept of interstitial space, a concept I’ve been kicking around for almost a decade. In addition to simply describing this type of liminal urban space, I sought to trace its prevalence in the city, to gauge some of the historical and ideological forces that produce these in-between spaces in the landscape of the city, and to demonstrate how important this interstitial space is to the marginal components of urban society. The urban constituencies who depend on these liminal spaces include the homeless population here in Tacoma, and migrant populations in worlding cities like Doha, Qatar.

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With Karen Liao (left) and Nevyne Zeineldine (right)

I was also asked by the conference organizers to evaluate and discuss two PhD candidates research progress and plans based on their preliminary fieldwork. This was a particularly energizing task. Karen Liao (NUS) has configured a project to examine and explore how architect-migrants returning to Manila both experience and reshape the city. While scholars (including those present at this workshop) have begun to think about how migrants are shaping and experiences cities, Karen presciently wants to grapple with how return-migrants interact with the cities that they departed earlier in life, and to which they often return near the end of their working life. And PhD Candidate Nevyne Zeineldine (Paris Descartes) has just returned from several months in Bahrain, where she’s grappling with how artists and the art scene there have interacted with the social movements that arose in the Arab Spring — social movements that remain somewhat active amidst the social frictions on the island. Both of these projects seem enormously promising, and I look forward to seeing their results. 

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“Little India” in Paris

The second day of our conference concluded at midday, and the Parisian organizers then took us on a walking tour of several of the migrant-dense neighborhoods of Paris. This was the highlight of my stay. We commenced near Gare Nord, in the neighborhood known as “Little India,” although the strong Tamilian presence there includes many of Sri Lankan ancestry. We proceeded up the hill into Goutte d’Or, where North African and Middle Eastern migrants have established a diasporic footprint in the city. We concluded by walking through the bustling street markets of Boulevard Barbès, where the African and Caribbean imprint on the city is strongest. Later that night, France beat Belgium in the World Cup semifinals, and the streets of Paris erupted in jubilation.

Andrew

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Yasser Elsheshtawy (right) in conversation with a neighborhood resident in Goutte d’Or

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Boys horsing around near Boulevard Barbés in Paris

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“Little India” in Paris

 

Presentation at the London School of Economics

lakatos-building-for-webHi all,

I’ve just returned from a trip to the London School of Economics and Political Science, where I was invited to present to a workshop entitled Tribe and State in the Middle East, hosted by the LSE’s Middle East Centre. It was a fascinating conference, substantively interdisciplinary, and bursting with contributions and assessments from around the Middle East and North Africa.

The central question guiding this small congregation of scholars concerned how tribe and tribalism — undeniably a social feature integral to the traditions of many peoples around the Middle East — fits with the modern state. Are tribes and states antithetical in nature? Or can (and do) they fit together in new, unforeseen ways?

Papers helped illuminate this issue. Haian Dukhan‘s fascinating paper, for example, explored how tribalism features in the social frictions and conflict that have embroiled Syria. Alice Wilson‘s paper examined how tribal forms of meeting have been a feature of the nascent democracy in Western Sahara, and the basis for political mobilization in some parts of Oman. Alnoud Alsharekh clarified that tribalism was, and remains, a stoutly patriarchal form, and one that remains an oppressive force in women’s lives around Arabia. Numerous other papers in the session explored equally interesting topics.

In my own paper (which I retitled On Tribalism in Arabia), I provided an overview of anthropology’s long concern with the tribal form of social organization. While anthropology’s perspective on tribalism has evolved fairly dramatically over the last century, it remains a meaningful social form to many anthropologists, foremost, I think, because it remains a meaningful social form to the peoples we study. I further suggested that while researchers have pointed to the resurgence of tribalism in places where the state is weak or absent (such as post-war Iraq), the resurgence of tribalism in Qatar and the other Arabian Gulf States — places where the state is neither weak nor absent — suggests other conditions and circumstances also foster the value of this tribal form.

The Middle East Centre at the LSE intends to publish these papers on its blog, and I’ll post a brief follow up here with those links once they’re available.

Andrew

Andrew’s Presentation at Berkeley

Hi all,

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The ORIAS Migration and Diaspora group

ORIAS, or the Office of Resources for International and Area Studies, is a unit at the University of California Berkeley. ORIAS exists at the juncture of six different areas studies programs at Berkeley, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies, the Center for Southeast Asia Studies, the Institute of East Asian Studies, and several more. Part of ORIAS’ mission is to help k-12 and community college teachers improve their understanding of global issues, and to incorporate those new understandings into their courses. This commitment takes the form of ORIAS Summer Institutes for Teachers.

The first ORIAS workshop of the summer was themed Migration & Diaspora, and I was asked by ORIAS to deliver a lecture about contemporary labor migration in the Middle East. My presentation, entitled Journey to Arabia, was an extrapolation of a paper I recently published, and provides an overview of the migration system that connects transnational labor migrants from around the Indian Ocean world to employment in the wealth states of the Arabian Peninsula. That presentation provided me and a really impressive group of community college professors with an excellent foundation for a wide-ranging conversation about the similarities and differences between migration here in America and elsewhere. We also

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Pre-presentation jitters …

discussed some of the challenges inherent in discussing other migrations and mobilities in the current American climate.
In addition to that stimulating conversation, I was also able to catch a couple other fascinating papers, including Edward Alpers‘ fascinating survey of The Indian Ocean Slave Trade from Africa, and Vladimir Hamed-Troyansky‘s Muslim Refugee Migrations from Russia to the Middle East. Altogether, I learned a lot from these other papers, and from the conversation we had following my presentation.

 

Andrew